BA in Economics

Undergraduate students gathered around a computer

The Department of Economics offers two bachelor's degree tracks. The standard BA in Economics Track is designed for students who plan to pursue careers directly after graduation, or possibly pursue graduate study in a related field. The BA in Economics: Graduate Track is designed for students who are considering continuing on with graduate study in economics.

Both tracks prepare students to understand and apply the economics of government and business, and to think anylytically about economic challenges. Undergraduate students may also pursue a joint major or a combined BA/MA option. 

Degree Requirements

Both BA in Economics tracks require students to earn a total of 120 university credits and maintain a minimum 2.0 GPA in their economics classes, as well as an overall 2.0 GPA. Students are encouraged to review their DARS reports frequently to monitor their progress. Please note: Transfer students must also maintain a minimum 2.0 GPA after entering UB, and their final overall GPA, including past courses, must equal or exceed 2.0. 

Economics majors are encouraged to pursue courses in related fields, such as English, political science, advanced mathematics and/or other social sciences. The Department of Economics recommends that students take every available opportunity to explore the paths that interest them. 

Standard BA in Economics

Courses   Credits
Prerequisites

Any Combination of  one course from Group A and one course from Group B:

Group A: MTH 121, MTH 131 or MTH 141

Group B: MTH 122 or MTH 142

N/A
Required Courses

ECO 405: Microeconomic Theory

ECO 407: Macroeconomic Theory

ECO 480: Econometrics I

3

3

4

Economics Upper-Level Electives

Four (4) additional Economics courses at the 300 level or above. These cannot include ECO 495 Undergraduate Supervised Teaching and ECO 496 Internship in Economics.

 

A maximum of three (3) credits may be from ECO 499 Independent Study or ECO 498 Undergraduate Research. ECO 406 is required to graduate with Honors in Economics and can be used as an upper level elective course.

12
Other Economics Electives Economics courses at any level (ECO 495 and ECO 496 can be used toward these credits). 11
Permitted Substitution for ECO 480 MTH 411 and STA 302; or GEO 211 and 411; or EAS 305 3-4
Total BA Credits   33

BA in Economics: Graduate Track

Courses   Credits
Prerequisites

MTH 141: College Calculus 1
MTH 142: College Calculus 2

N/A
Required Courses

ECO 405H: Microeconomic Theory

ECO 406H: Topics in Microeconomics*

ECO 407H: Honors Macroeconomic Theory

MTH 411: Probability Theory

MTH 412: Introduction to Statistical Inference

3

3

3

4

4

Economics Upper-Level Electives

Four (4) additional Economics courses at the 300 level or above. These cannot include ECO 495 Undergraduate Supervised Teaching or ECO 496 Internship in Economics.

 

A maximum of three (3) credits may be from ECO 499 Independent Study or ECO 498 Undergraduate Research. 

12
Other Economics Electives Economics courses at any level. 6
Total BA Credits   35

*This course is also required to graduate with Honors in Economics.

Planning Your Courses

Once students have declared an economics major, the department recommends the following courses for consideration:

General Course Recommendations

  • ECO 181: Introduction to Macroeconomics and ECO 182: Introduction to Microeconomics are introductory economics courses that assume no prior knowledge. ECO 181 and ECO 182 have no prerequisites and are the best place to commence study in economics. Students may begin with either course. 
  • All 200-level ECO courses have no prerequisites. A popular way to satisfy the 11 credits of “Other Economics Electives”  is by taking ECO 181, ECO 182 and a 200-level ECO course.
  • ECO 405: Microeconomic Theory and ECO 407: Macroeconomic Theory are required courses for the BA in Economics, as well as prerequisites for most 400-level economics electives. ECO 405 and ECO 407 should be taken as early as possible. The only prerequisites for ECO 405 and ECO 407 are MTH 121-122 or MTH 141-142 (i.e. Calc I and II) or MTH 131 and MTH 122. However, the knowledge gained in ECO 181 is useful in ECO 407, while ECO 182 is useful in ECO 405.
  • ECO 480: Econometrics I is also a required course for the BA in Economics. It is mathematical and challenging. The prerequisites for ECO 480 are MTH 121-122 or MTH 141-142 (i.e. Calc I and II) or MTH 131 and MTH 122. Students should plan on taking ECO 480 during their third year at the latest.

Recommendations for Students Interested in Finance Careers

  • ECO 426: Capital Markets and Financial Institutions is an introduction to modern corporate finance, asset pricing theories and the institutions that regulate and compose the financial markets. The prerequisite for ECO 426 is ECO 407.
  • ECO 434: International Finance is the international counterpart of ECO 426, focusing on exchange rates, international flows of capital, international trade and currencies. The prerequisite for ECO 434 is ECO 407.
  • ECO 425: Money and Financial Institutions teaches the relationship between financial markets and macroeconomic forces and how this is affected by government regulation. The prerequisite for ECO 425 is ECO 407.
  • ECO 490: Monetary Theory examines advanced theories of money and its effect on leading indicators of the state of the economy, such as GDP and the interest rate. The prerequisite for ECO 490 is ECO 407.
  • ECO 461: Economic Fluctuation and Forecasting studies time series models, the foundation of data analysis in macroeconomics and finance. The prerequisites for ECO 461 are ECO 405 and ECO 407.

For further information about undergraduate economics courses, please visit the Undergraduate Catalog