Greek 101 is the first course in the two-semester introductory Greek sequence. Upon successful completion of this course, together with Greek 102, students will be able to read, with recourse to a dictionary and grammar reference, unedited ancient Greek. Students will learn to engage with and appreciate ancient documents, ranging from Archaic poetry and Classical prose and to the books of the New Testament, at a more direct and fundamental level than is possible in English translation. This course offers five language credits. (Usually offered during the winter and summer sessions.)
Please visit the Office of the Registrar to register for next semester's courses.
CL 100: Archaeology and Rediscovery in the Classical World
This course examines the search for the evidence for ancient Greek and Roman culture that survived antiquity and what that evidence reveals of those cultures. Notable archaeological finds such as those of the Athenian Acropolis and Agora and the south Italian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, among numerous others, will be explored during the course to provide students with an overview of the Greek and Roman civilizations. (Sebastiani)
CL 105: Greek & Roman Archaeology
Offers a broad overview of the civilizations of ancient Greece and Italy through the perspective of their material culture, primarily architecture, sculpture, and painting, as well as minor arts and crafts (for example, pottery and metalwork). These five civilizations: Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, comprise the core area for the discipline known as Classical Archaeology. Emerging as a formal field of study only in the 19th century, but with roots far earlier in antiquarian pursuits by an educated and inquisitive elite, we will also explore the circumstances of discovery, recovery, and interpretation of the pre-historic and historical past of these primary Mediterranean civilizations. (Ault)
CL 110: The Latest News from the Ancient World
This course will look at several ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern worlds, examining the many different methods we use to learn about the past and learning how a multitude of modern institutions and ideas are rooted in early antiquity from religious and philosophical ideologies to social institutions to artistic and architectural forms. We will also look at many ways in which we now use the past when we are talking about the present, for example in films and literature, in political and social debates. Our focus will be on the ancient Mediterranean and Near East, and we will examine material from the early Paleolithic era up into the Byzantine and Islamic eras. Throughout the course, you will be encouraged to reflect on connections between the distant past and our contemporary world, using the past to better understand the present, and using the present to make better sense of the past. (McGuire)
CL 112: Stone Axe to Tank: Warfare in World History
This is an entry level course for those wishing to study the place of warfare in history, from the Neolithic Era to World War One. The course will consist of weekly lectures, which will include numerous images and film clips on such topics as fortifications, changes in technology, tactics, and strategy, military fashion, and the uses of geography, as well as weekly recitations for discussion. (Boyd)
CL 113 (APY 168): Myth and Religion in the Ancient World
Myth and Religion in the Ancient World provides a comparative analysis of the mythic and religious traditions of various early Indo-European peoples, in coverage extending chronologically and geographically from Vedic India to Medieval Ireland and Scandinavia, focusing on ancient Greece and, especially Rome. The analytic model used is that of, chiefly, Emile Benveniste and Georges Dumezil. (Woodard)
CL 151: Medical Terminology
The goal of this course is to familiarize the student with medical terminology by approaching it from its Greek and Latin roots.
CL 180: Ancient Sport
The aim of this course is to introduce students to ancient Greek and Roman society through the examination of ancient sport and spectacles in the Greco-Roman world. Athletics played a central role in the values, ethics, and beliefs of ancient Greek and Roman society, and became part of the very fabric of their socio-cultural, political, economic, and religious systems. During the course, we will not only examine ancient sport, but also its intersection with modern athletics and athletic values. Examples of topics include: the Olympics then and now; the Roman gladiatorial amphitheatre, violence, cruelty, and Christian martyrs; women, religion, and myth in ancient athletics; and training, ethics, and professionalism. We will use evidence from archaeology, Greek and Latin literature in translation, athletic representations in painting and sculpture, and modern sport readings to reconstruct the historical practices and ideologies of ancient athletics. Through the history and social significance of sport in the ancient world, students will have a better understanding of modern sport, spectacles, and athletic practices and their role in society today.
CL 199: UB Seminar
CL 200: Introduction to Classical Archaeology
Introduces Greek and Roman archaeology through the study of the great archaeological discoveries and famous archaeologists from the Renaissance to the present. Relates the archaeologists and their discoveries to the general development of classical archaeology and the cultural history of the era in which they took place Three credit. No Prerequisites (Dyson)
This course will offer a broad overview of the civilizations of ancient Greece and Italy through the perspective of their material culture, primarily architecture, sculpture, and painting, as well as minor arts and crafts (for example, pottery and metalwork). These five civilizations: Minoan, Mycenaean, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman, comprise the core area for the discipline known as Classical Archaeology. Emerging as a formal field of study only in the 19th century, but with roots far earlier in antiquarian pursuits by an educated and inquisitive elite, we will also explore the circumstances of discovery, recovery, and interpretation of the pre-historic and historical past of these primary Mediterranean civilizations. (Ault)
CL 202: Archaeology and Rediscovery of the Ancient World
Introduces the material world of Greece and Rome through the study of great archaeological discoveries and archaeologists from the renaissance to the present. Relates the archaeologists and their discoveries to the general development of classical archaeology and the cultural history of the era in which they took place. (Dyson)
CL 210: Women in the Ancient World
Explores status of women; roles in literature; their social and economic context; and the origins of contemporary stereotypes and prejudices.
CL 222: Greek Civilization
A study of the most noteworthy developments (literary, societal, and political) that took place in the ancient Greek world between 750 and 400 BCE. We start by reading selected passages from Homer’s Iliad. We then discuss a number of fascinating topics, including democracy, drama (both tragedy and comedy), warfare, medicine, political philosophy, rhetoric, and athletics. We conclude with Plato’s writings about the trial and execution of Socrates. (Teegarden)
Explore the literature, science, art, and philosophy of ancient Greece. This course will take you through the early Mycenaean kingdoms, the golden age of Athens, and the hellenistic empire of Alexander the Great. Readings will include Homer, Hesiod, lyric poetry, tragedy, comedy, and excerpts from historians like Herodotus and Thucydides. Developments in visual art and architecture will be studied alongside literary texts. (Kaufman)
CL 223: Roman Civilization
A introductory survey of Roman culture from its mythical beginnings to the time of the emperors. We will study a variety of literary works (comedy, epic, historiography, biographies, novels, satires) as well as material culture (painting, sculpture, and architecture). An overview of Roman social history provides the context for our investigation of Rome’s literature and art. (Dugan)
CL 228: Warfare in the Ancient Mediterranean World
This course is designed to provide a historically anchored survey of warfare in the ancient Mediterranean civilizations, particularly those of Greece and Rome. Not simply a history of strategies and battles, our intent will be to look at the wide range of issues influencing and impacted by armed conflict: for example, religious and political ideologies, family structure, the economy, and technology and the arts. It is hoped that the background acquired by students will help them to better evaluate the overall nature of society, both ancient and modern, especially in light of subsequent instances of conflict, and particularly those in recent history. (Ault)
CL 287: The Art & Archaeology of Greece (Summer Program in Greece)
This course will survey the art and archaeology of Greece from the early Bronze Age (3’d millennium BCE} down through the Hellenistic era (3’d-151 centuries BCE}, integrating lectures and textbook assignments with site visits and museum visits around the Greek mainland and islands. We will examine the ancient technologies that artists drew on to shape the major artistic media of the Greek world (architecture, sculpture, ceramics, painting, and metalwork}, and we will also identify and evaluate the ever-changing aesthetic issues and values that are revealed by all of the material that survives into modern times. Along our journey, we will also have the opportunity to examine many of the different methods we use to understand the past, exploring the impact of new technologies and methodologies on our understanding of the ancient Greek world.
CL 305: Heroes
The archetype of the hero as it occurs in the psychology of the life cycle, in ancient heroic literature and in modern popular culture. Readings from Gilgamesh, the Odyssey, the Mahabharata, Beowulf, the Arthurian cycle and the Bible. Examples from cinema, comic books, etc.
CL 311: Classics in the Americas
This course will explore the uses of Greek and Roman civilization in American political, intellectual and cultural discourse from the period of the American Revolution to the Age of the Neo-Cons. It will begin with a consideration of the role classical models played in the debates leading up to the American Revolution and the Ratification of the Constitution . The next section will deal with the Early American Republic and the Ways in which the arts were used to create a sense of identity with Greece and Rome. The third section will deal with the role of the Classics in both the Slavery Debate and the rhetoric of the Civil War. That will be followed by a consideration of the Classics in the Gilded Age, when Rome was embraced as an expression of a new American dynamism and Greece was romanticized as a counter to an ‘Age of Vulgarity’. The last two sections will deal with uses of Greece and Rome between the Wars and the renewed use of Greece and Roman analogies from the end of World War II to the Invasion of Iraq. (Dyson)
CL 315: Classical Epic Traditions: Epics of Troy|
This course provides a survey of classical epic poetry, beginning with the foundational works of western literature, Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, then continuing with readings of Apollonius’ Argonautika, Vergil’s Aeneid, and Lucan’s Bellum Ciuile. Through lectures and discussions, students will learn about the Greco-Roman cultures that produced these poems, as well as the construction of the genre of epic and its profound influence on the course of western literature. They will also discuss how the works treat various major themes, such as the causes of warfare, the place of the individual in society, and human confrontation of mortality. Students completing this course should be able to discuss the central role of epic poetry in the origins of western literature, as well as how the issues raised by the poets reflect on ancient Greek and Roman culture. (Coffee)
The legendary Trojan War has captivated audiences for thousands of years. In this class, we will read the three ancient epics that center on the Trojan War and its aftermath: the Iliad, which recounts the fatal feud between the Greek leader Agamemnon and Achilles, the greatest of the Greek warriors; the Odyssey, which tells of the adventures of the wily hero Odysseus as he makes his way from Troy to his homeland, Ithaca; and the Aeneid, which tells of the fate of the defeated Trojans and their search for a new homeland after the destruction of the city. In addition to the epics, we will look at the historical reality of the Trojan War and consider cinematic explorations of the Troy theme. (Malamud)
Readings in translation designed to provide an understanding of the forms and particular visions of the epic genre, especially its Greek and Roman exemplars. (Woodard)
CL 316: Greek Drama in Translation
CL 327: History of the Roman Republic
A survey of Roman history from the foundation of the city to the death of Julius Caesar. The political and military developments will be related to social, economic, and cultural changes in Roman society. Three credits. No Prerequisites (Dyson)
CL 328: History of the Roman Empire
The development of the Roman Empire from the accession of Augustus to the reign of Justinian. Political and military history will be complemented by considerations of changes in Roman society and the life of ordinary Romans under the Empire. Special attention will be played to the Roman Empire outside of Italy and to the uses of archaeology to understand Roman history. (Dyson)
CL 331: Roman Imperialism
The Roman Empire lasted over 600 years, occupying most of Western Europe, much of the Middle East, Asia Minor and the northern coast of Africa. It must be considered the most successful empire in western history. Its impact can still be found in the geography, language, institutions, customs and culture of modern western society. What made the Roman Empire so great? What challenges did it face, and how did it overcome them? This course will explore how the Roman Empire formed, maintained control, the nature of its seemingly invincible army, the defense of its borders, how it dealt with rebellions and resistance, and what strategies it used to integrate its many and ethnically diverse inhabitants.
CL 332: The Athenian Empire
This semester we will have the opportunity to take an in-depth look at the institution of Athens. Not simply a course on the political and military fortunes of the city during its fifth century apex, we will take into account Athenian social and cultural history both before and after the golden age as well. Time will be spent considering the physical and metaphysical dimensions of the city and its inhabitants (and, by extension, the Greeks in general), their norms and values, forms of government (especially the particularly timely double-edged sword of democracy and imperialism), and intellectual achievements. (Ault)
CL 332: The Athenian Empire
In this course we will study the history of the Athenian Empire from its foundation (as the Delian League) in 478 BCE to its forced dissolution in 404 BCE. Topics discussed include: the nature of empire in general and the changing nature of Athenian imperialism in particular; the nature of Athens’ “radical” 5th century democracy; the nature of Athens’ 5th century cultural efflorescence (i.e., “the Golden Age”). The last quarter or so of the course will be devoted to a detailed examination of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE) – a war fought between the Spartans and their allies and the Athenians and their allies. In this we will be guided by Thucydides’ magisterial History of the Peloponnesian War, arguably the most influential work of history written in classical antiquity. (Teegarden)
CL 333: Ancient World Movies
We are going to watch and think about several modern movies about the ancient Greco-Roman world (TROY; GLADIATOR; 300; many more). During the semester, we will explore different aspects of classical culture (historical events, religious behavior, social issues, etc) and different modern issues embedded in the films we watch. Students will not only enjoy the movies, work, and conversations, but also gain an appreciation for cultural and historical issues of Classical antiquity, for the history of modern cinema, and for the many ways in which movies reflect the eras in which they were made. (McGuire)
CL 336: Greek Archaeology, I
This course provides the first of a two-semester overview of Greek civilization though its archaeological remains. Over the semester we will survey settlements, cemeteries, and sanctuaries, as well as pottery, painting, and sculpture, spanning the Stone, Bronze, and early Iron Ages. This evidence will be used to consider theories about broad historical trends and developments in culture and society. In the process we will also take into account archaeological methods as they are used to go about “reading” the past from material culture. (Ault)
CL 337: Greek Archaeology, II
This course provides the second of a two-semester overview of Greek civilization through its archaeological remains. Over the semester we will survey architecture, sculpture, and painting from ca. 700 to 31 B.C., comprising the periods known as the Orientalizing, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. During this time span the development of artistic styles and architectural types will be traced against the stage of social history and political institutions. (Ault)
CL 338: Introduction to Roman Archaeology 1
The course aims to introduce the students to the archaeology of the Roman Republic period, through the analysis of a series of topics and related study cases. The course covers from the Etruscan period to the end of the Roman Republic (8th c. BC – 1st c. BC). The course addresses the rise of the Roman civilization, its expansion within the Italian peninsula and the wider Mediterranean. During the classes, students will have the possibility of becoming familiar with major debates in history and archaeology for the Republican time and to explore many Republican monuments and sites. (Sebastiani)
A survey in lecture format of the archaeology of the Romans and their central Italian neighbors, particularly the Etruscans, from the small-scale societies of the Iron Age to the formal creation of the Roman Empire at the close of the first century BCE. Emphasizes the different kinds of evidence available for archaeological reconstructions and the methods employed by archaeologists for the collection and analysis of these. The course focuses on key issues, including the emergence of complex society and the state form of political organization, the physical and institutional nature of early cities, the adoption of writing systems and the nature of early inscribed texts, the role of religion in the community, the dynamics of the expansion of Roman political, cultural, and economic influence first in Italy and then throughout the Mediterranean basin, and the rise of commercial forms of economic life in the Roman world. (Dyson)
CL 339: Roman Archaeology II
Focuses on the Art and Archaeology of the Roman Empire from Augustus to Justinian. The monuments of Roman and the major centers of the Roman Empire will be studied. Stress will also be placed on the uses of archaeology in reconstructing Roman social and economic history. Three credits. Roman Archaeology I not required. (Dyson)
CL 340: The Classical Origins of Western Literature
The poets and writers of ancient Greece and Rome created countless innovations in their literary works that became the inheritance of Western culture. These range from narrative techniques like flashbacks, found already in Homer, to the creation of meaning through sustained allegory, to the development of genres and tones like the macabre. The goal of this course is to introduce students to the range of classical literature by surveying key innovations that continue to make Greek and Roman literature exciting, and that have influenced the work of centuries of writers in the Western tradition down to the present. (Coffee)
CL 341: Digital & Virtual Cultural Heritage
Augmented and virtual reality, 3D reconstructions, LIDAR and GIS are part of the new language of cultural heritage in the 21st century. The demand for and use of digital data increases as archaeologists face a technologically-fueled revolution in their methods of recording, analyzing and communicating the results of historical investigations to wider audiences. This course will introduce students to the topic of digital and virtual cultural heritage, by analyzing the different techniques employed to record and preserve our past and the monuments that are daily threated by warfare and looting, changing climactic conditions, and the need for sustainable tourism.
Students will have the opportunity to learn the principles of digital archaeology and the evolution of the discipline in the last decades in relation to the study and preservation of cultural heritage. The course will also provide a learning overview on digital tools and methods (the Internet, social media, virtual and augmented reality, 3D modeling) that are nowadays applied to cultural heritage and their influence in our perception of the past. (Sebastiani)
CL 361: Art & Archaeology of Egypt
This course will explore the development of Egyptian Civilization from the original settlement on the Nile to the Christianization of Egypt. Beginning with the rediscovery of ancient t Egypt from the Renaissance onward, the course will explore the major eras in the development of Egyptian state and society. Emphasis will be on the art and archaeology, but historical texts will also be considered. Special emphasis will be placed on special topics such as mummification and pyramid building. (Dyson)
CL 362: Survey of Greek History
This is a course on the history of ancient Greece from the Bronze Age to the end of Peloponnesian War (ie., circa 1400 – 404 BCE). We will study the major political, social, economic and cultural developments that took place in the Greek-speaking world during those several centuries. At the end of the semester, each student will be better able to analyze ancient Greek history and appreciate the contributions made by the ancient Greeks to the Western World. (Teegarden)
CL 363: Roman Religion
Religion played a major role in the daily life of ancient Romans, but the boundaries between the sacred and the profane were markedly different from those of our own culture. This course will examine the pervasive role of religion and ritual in all aspects of Roman society from archaic Rome into the Imperial era. We will explore the identity of the major and minor gods of Rome and the nature of their worship, the Roman priesthoods, prophecy and divination in Rome, the religious festivals of the Roman people, the sacred spaces of Rome, the role of religion in war and athletic competition, religion and Roman class struggles, the relationship of Roman religion to the religious systems of other ancient peoples of the Italian peninsula, and Greek and Near Eastern influence on the religious system of the Romans, among still other topics. (Woodard)
CL 408: End of Rome & Birth of Europe
This course will look at the archaeology and history of Italy and Western Europe from the Reign of Constantine through the Reign of Charlemagne. It will use archaeological and documentary evidence to explore such topics as the Christianity of the Roman Empire, the Barbarian Invasions, changes and continuity of the cities and countryside of Europe and the rise of the new order in Merovingian and Carolingian Europe. Emphasis will be on the way that new discoveries, especially in archaeology have changed how we look at this period. (Dyson)
CL 410: Classics Capstone Seminar
CL 410: The Ancient World in the Movies
This course will view and examine a semester-long series of movies set in the ancient Greco-Roman world, from the early, silent classic “Cabiria” to more contemporary hits, “300,” “Troy,” and “Gladiator.” The chief goal of the course is to understand some of the ways in which movies have used the ancient world to talk about modern cultures. Course requirements will include a set of writing assignments and readings related to film, to the ancient world, and to modern reaction to the films. Class attendance at Sunday evening movies (on campus and comfortable!) will be required, as well as two class hours per week. (McGuire)
CL 410: Ancient Greek Democracy & Macedonian Imperialism
This is a course on the history of Greek democracy during the reigns of Philip II and Alexander the Great. We begin with a thorough study of the institutions and underlying ideologies of Athens’ democracy. We then trace in detail the rise of king Philip II and study how and why he eventually defeated democratic Athens and her Greek allies. We conclude by briefly analyzing Alexander the Great’s democratization policy in western Asia Minor. (Teegarden)
CL 410: The Classical Spectrum
A capstone experience for senior Classics majors and minors, entailing an advanced, integrated examination of the diverse elements of the discipline of Classics in a seminar setting. (Woodard)
CL 422: The Greek City polis, chora, and oikos
This course will examine the nature of ancient Greek civic and domestic life through the archaeology of urbanism, regional and rural settlement, patterns of land use, and houses and households. For the city and its territory we consider the rise of the polis; the types, design and placement of public spaces and buildings, including sanctuaries; orthogonal planning and Hippodamos of Miletus; and the relationship between the city and its countryside. Turning to the household, we take up issues ranging from the use, functions and decorative elaboration of domestic space; to the domestic economy; to issues of status, ideology, and gender in the ancient house. (Ault)
CL 430: Ancient Economy
A topical survey of the economy of the Roman empire (offered jointly with a graduate section) that combines lectures, in-class presentations by students, and the discussion of readings. Emphasizes the different forms of textual and material cultural evidence available for the elucidation of the Roman economy and the ways in which historians and archaeologists employ these for economic analysis. The course is organized around weekly topics, including general models of the Roman economy, the free market versus the command economy, rationality, productivity and growth, money, labor and occupations, the economic role of towns, agricultural production, marketing, bankers and traders, consumption, and quantitative approaches to economic analysis. Written assignments are aimed at developing students skills in the critical evaluation of scholarly literature and the analysis of original data sets.
CL 440: Pompeii
A systematic survey in lecture format (offered jointly with a graduate section) of the remains of the buried city of Pompeii. The course aims to familiarize students with the ways in which archaeologists and historians have used the broad array of evidence available from the town (e.g., buildings, frescoes, sculpture, private archives, graffiti, pottery, metalwork and other portable material culture, human remains, environmental data) to illuminate various aspects of its social, political, religious, and economic life. Students complete two take-home laboratory exercises that provide them experience in the collection and analysis of archaeological data. (Dyson)
CL 445: Christians in the Roman Empire
Explores the development of early Christianity in the context of the changing Roman Empire. Begins with the life of Jesus, considering him as a subject of Rome and continues through the development of Christian communities in the first-fourth century AD Roman Empire Three credits. A previous course in Roman history recommended (Dyson)
CL 494: Classics Capstone Seminar
Non-majors may take this course with the permission of the instructor. All readings are in English.
GR 101 - Ancient Greek Language & Culture 1
This course introduces the study of the ancient Greek language, conveying the essential grammar and vocabulary through readings in a variety of simple texts. The course also offers a broad overview of the historical background and cultural milieu in which the great works of ancient Greek literature and culture were created. No prerequisites. (Kicey)
GR 201- Ancient Greek Language & Culture 2
An introduction to ancient Greek with a study of the essential grammar and readings in a variety of simple texts.
GR 301 - Ancient Greek Language & Culture 3
GR 302: Ancient Greek Language & Culture 4
Advanced work in grammar and composition together with readings from prose and poetry.
GR 401: Ancient Greek Language and Culture 5
The focus in this course is upon developing the ability to read Greek with accuracy and increasing speed. To do so, we cover a number of texts and selections from oratory and drama with an emphasis upon understanding how the grammar works in context and how to build a working vocabulary. There is a further emphasis upon historical and social contexts, not only what the Greek means linguistically, but also what it means in the world of 5th and 4th century BC Athenian life. (Boyd)
Lessons in the textbook will be supplemented by short passages from texts written by ancient Greek authors. (Teegarden)
GR 402: Herodotus
Selections from Herodotus’ Histories, and representative Greek poets, such as Sappho, Alcman, and Pindar. Emphasizes improving reading ability.
GR 403: Greek Drama (3)
GR 404: Greek Oratory (3)
GR 426: Lyric Poetry (3)
GR 444: Reading Greek Literature (3)
LAT 101: Latin Language and Culture 1
Introduces Latin; the reading of simple texts by various Roman authors. Also deals with Roman culture and civilization and with the influence of Latin in English vocabulary.
LAT 201: Latin Language and Culture 2
LAT 301: Latin Language and Culture 3
An introduction to Latin; the reading of simple texts by various Roman authors. The course will also deal with Roman culture and civilization and with the influence of Latin in English vocabulary.
LAT 302: Latin Language & Culture 4
Advanced work in Latin grammar with readings from Latin prose and poetry. (Dugan)
This course combines a review of basic grammar with extended readings in Caesar and Cicero. Students will increase their vocabularies, learn how to construe a Latin sentence, and begin to appreciate Latin prose style. The readings focus on the fall of the Roman Republic, a fundamental turning point in western history. (Coffee)
LAT 401: Ovid (3)
Improved reading ability in Latin, mastery of the dactylic hexameter meter, ability to identify Latin grammatical forms and syntactical construction, comprehension of problems in translation.
Intermediate Latin: Students will increase speed in reading unadulterated Latin texts and developed a sophisticated understanding of Latin syntax. We will read selections from Cicero. (Malamud)
In this course, students will read and discuss selections from the works of Ovid in Latin, focusing on his most influential poem, the grand mythological epic Metamorphoses. Students who take this course will improve their Latin reading skills, their familiarity with the workings of Roman poetry, and their understanding of Roman culture. (Coffee)
LAT 402: 6th semester Latin
LAT 404: Ciceronian Oratory (3)
LAT 407: Lucretius and Epicurus (3)
LAT 408: Roman Historians (3)
LAT 409: Classical Latin: Prose Writers (3)
LAT 410: Roman Comedy (3)
LAT 413: Virgil (3)
LAT 414: Silver Latin (3)
LAT 443: Reading Latin Literature (3)