Past research centered on the neurobiological control of stereotypic behaviors in invertebrate organisms such as insects, crabs and arachnids, with particular interests on the central neural mechanisms responsible for those behaviors and the neuromuscular mechanisms directly producing movements. Current research interests lie in two main fields. The first area is the control of single ion channels in epithelial cells in fish intestine and pituitary cells. The second research area is an investigation of the physiological role of giant nerve axons in the behavior of a specialized group of organisms, the aquatic oligochaete. Of special interest is the physiological and anatomical alterations which occur when these organisms reproduce asexually.