Sam Bell is a professor in the Department of Political Science at the University at Buffalo. His recent work examines government repression and human rights violations, with a specific focus on how external factors, such as third-party military interventions and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), influence these outcomes. More broadly his research examines several outcomes related to political violence and human security. His work has been published in the British Journal of Political Science, Conflict Management and Peace Science, International Studies Quarterly, Journal of Conflict Resolution, and Journal of Politics, among other outlets. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. from Binghamton University and his B.A. from University at Albany.