Paras N. Prasad


Paras Prasad.

Paras N. Prasad


Paras N. Prasad


Research Interests

Lasers, Photonics, and Biophotonics: Preparation, processing, and theoretical modeling of nanostructured photonic materials; Biophotonics; Nonlinear optical processes


  • Guggenheim Fellow, 1997
  • Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, 1977-1981
  • Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Michigan, 1971-1974
  • PhD, University of Pennsylvania, 1971
  • MS, Bihar University, India, 1966
  • BS, Bihar University, India, 1964


Preparation, processing and theoretical modeling of nanostructured photonic materials; biophotonics; nonlinear optical processes

  • Preparation, processing and theoretical modeling of photonic materials.
  • Nonlinear optical effects in organic polymers.
  • Laser-matter interaction.
  • Ultrafast processes in condensed phase.
  • Microstructure and dynamics in sol-gel processed organic:inorganic hybrid materials.
  • Multiphoton processes and their applications to photodynamic cancer therapy, fluorescence imaging and 3D optical data storage.

Research Summary

Photonics is emerging as a multidisciplinary new frontier of science and technology and is capturing the imagination of scientists and engineers worldwide because of its potential applications to many areas of present and future information and image processing technologies. Photonics is the analog of electronics in that it describes the technology in which photons instead of electrons are used to acquire, store, transmit, and process information. Nonlinear optics provides key operational functions needed for the implementation of photonics technology. See also the UB Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics website.

Our Photonics Research Laboratory in the Chemistry Department is engaged in multidisciplinary research in the field of photonics and nonlinear optics. It has excellent research facilities for a comprehensive multidisciplinary research program and features state-of-the-art instrumentation. The comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach of the Photonics Research Laboratory covers the following integral components:

Theoretical modeling and a systematic study of the structure-property relation in sequentially built or substituted structures to identify chemical units and bonding structures which enhance photonic and nonlinear optical responses.

By chemical synthesis and modification, development of useful multifunctional and nanostructured materials simultaneously exhibiting large nonlinearities and other desirable optical and materials qualities.

Fabrication of useful bulk units of optical quality via crystal growth, film fabrication including that by Langmuir-Blodgett techniques, and fiber technique.

Study of physics of linear and nonlinear optical processes using a variety of experimental techniques including ultra short laser pulses of approximately 60 femtoseconds width.

Investigation of processes leading to device failure, involving optical damage or device lifetime limitation.

Study of two-photon processes and their applications to up-conversion lasing, optical power limiting, 3D optical data storage, confocal microscopy and photodynamic therapy.

Our program, therefore, provides opportunities for graduate research in synthetic chemistry, materials chemistry, analytical chemistry, theoretical chemistry and experimental physical chemistry.

Selected Recent Publications

  • “A Chemically Labelled Cytotoxic Agent: Two-Photon Fluorophore for Optical Tracking of Cellular Pathway in Chemotherapy,” X. Wang, L. J. Krebs, M. Al-Nuri, H. E. Pudavar, S. Ghosal, C. Liebow, A. A. Nagy, A. V. Schally and P. N. Prasad, Natl. Acad. Sci., 96, 11081-11084 (1999).
  • “Observation of Stimulated Emission by Direct Three-Photon Excitation,” G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.­C. Lin and P. N. Prasad, Nature, 415, 767-770 (2002).
  • “Nanochemistry: Synthesis and Characterization of Multifunctional Nanoclinics for Biological Applications,” L. Levy, Y. Sahoo, K. S. Kim, E. Bergey and P. N. Prasad, Mater., 14, 3715-3721 (2002).
  • “Ceramic-Based Nanoparticles Entrapping Water-Insoluble Photosensitizing Anticancer Drugs: A Novel Drug-Carrier System for Photodynamic Therapy,” I. Roy, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, H. E. Pudavar, E. J. Bergey, A. R. Oseroff, J. Morgan, T. J. Dougherty and P. N. Prasad, Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 7860-7865 (2003).
  • “Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles – A Novel Non-Viral Vector for In Vivo Gene Delivery and Expression in the Brain,” D. J. Bharali, I. Klejbor, E. K. Stachowiak, P. Dutta, I. Roy, N. Kaur, E. J. Bergey, P. N. Prasad and M. K. Stachowiak, Natl. Acad. Sci., 102, 11539-11544 (2005).
  • “New Method for Delivering a Hydrophobic Drug for Photodynamic Therapy Using Pure Nanocrystal Form of the Drug,” K. Baba, H. E. Pudavar, I. Roy, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, Y. Chen, R. K. Pandey and P. N. Prasad, Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4(2), 289-297 (2007).
  • “Imaging Pancreatic Cancer Using Surface-Functionalized Quantum Dots,” J. Qian, K.-T. Yong, I. Roy, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey, H. H. Lee, K. M. Tramposch, S. He, A. Maitra and P. N. Prasad, Phys. Chem. B, 111(25), 6969-6972 (2007).
  • “Multiplex Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer Cells Using Functionalized Quantum Rods,” K.-T. Yong. I. Roy, H. E. Pudavar E. J. Bergey, K. M. Tramposch, M. T. Swihart and P. N. Prasad, Advanced Materials, 20(8), 1412-1417 (2008).
  • “High Contrast in Vitro and in Vivo Photoluminescence Bioimaging Using Near Infrared to Near Infrared Up-Conversion in Tm3+ and Yb3+ Doped Fluoride Nanophosphors,” M. Nyk, R. Kumar, T. Y. Ohulchanskyy, E. J. Bergey and P. N. Prasad, Nano Lett., 8(11) 3834-3838 (2008).