Ingo Sonder

Ingo Sonder.

Research Assistant Professor

PhD, Geosciences, University of Wurzburg, Germany – 2010

463 Hochstetter Hall
(716) 645-6366


physical volcanology: processes, experiments
explosive and non-explosive magma-water interaction, explosive volcanic processes, volcanic mass flows, magma physics, heat transfer, molten fuel coolant interaction (MFCI), thermal granulation

Course Offerings


Research Interests

Experiments On Crater And Diatreme Formation

Experiments creating meter scale maar-diatreme subsurface structures to investigate their formation processes. 

Explosive Magma-Water Interaction

Setup of a molten fuel coolant (MFCI) based explosive magma-water interaction experiment.


Current Students


Recent Publications

G. A. Valentine & I. Sonder, 2018: Facilitating Field-Scale Experiments in Volcano Hazards. Eos, 99, doi: 10.1029/2018eo109237 .

I. Sonder, A. G. Harp, A. H. Graettinger, P. Moitra, G. A. Valentine, R. Büttner & B. Zimanowski, 2018: Meter-Scale Experiments on Magma-Water Interaction. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 1, doi: 10.1029/2018jb015682 .

P. Johnson, G. A. Valentine, P. H. Stauffer, C. S. Lowry, I. Sonder, B. A. Pulgarín, C. C. Santacoloma & A. Agudelo, 2018: Groundwater drainage from fissures as a source for lahars. Bull. Volcanol., 80, doi: 10.1007/s00445-018-1214-4 .

P. Moitra, I. Sonder & G. A. Valentine, 2018: Effects of size and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity on the cooling of pyroclasts in air. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 19, doi: 10.1029/2018GC007510 .

G. A. Valentine, J. D. L. White, P.‑S. Ross, A. H. Graettinger & I. Sonder, 2017: Updates to Concepts on Phreatomagmatic Maar-Diatremes and Their Pyroclastic Deposits. Front. Earth Sci., 5, doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00068 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine & I. Sonder, 2016: Recycling in debris-filled volcanic vents. Geology, doi: 10.1130/G38081.1 .

B. Oddsson, M. T. Gudmundsson, I. Sonder, B. Zimanowski & A. Schmid, 2016: Experimental studies of heat transfer at the dynamic magma ice/water interface, application to subglacially emplaced lava. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, doi:10.1002/2016JB012865 .

É. Macorps, A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine, P.‑S. Ross, J. D. L. White & I. Sonder, 2016: The effects of the host-substrate properties on maar-diatreme volcanoes: experimental evidence. Bull. Volcanol., 78, doi: 10.1007/s00445-016-1013-8 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine & I. Sonder, 2015: Circum-crater variability of deposits from discrete, laterally and vertically migrating volcanic explosions: experimental evidence and field implications. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 308, doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.10.019 .

A. H. Graettinger, G. A. Valentine, I. Sonder, P.‑S. Ross & J. D. L. White, 2015: Facies distribution of ejecta in analog tephra rings from experiments with single and multiple subsurface explosions. Bull. Volcanol., 77, doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0951-x .

G. A. Valentine, A. H. Graettinger, É. Macorps, P.‑S. Ross, J. D. L. White, É. Döhring & I. Sonder, 2015: Experiments with vertically and laterally migrating subsurface explosions with applications to the geology of phreatomagmatic and hydrothermal explosion craters and diatremes. Bull. Volcanol., 77, doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0901-7 .

I. Sonder, A. H. Graettinger & G. A. Valentine, 2015: Scaling multiblast craters: general approach and application to volcanic craters. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, doi: 10.1002/2015JB012018 .